Immunotherapy is a treatment that taps into power of the immune system. Immunotherapy can enable the immune system to target and potentially cure all types of cancer. Cancer is able to hide from your immune system or block the immune response.
Immunotherapy helps to strengthen or restore the immune system's ability to fight cancer. It is used to stop cancer from spreading to other parts of the body. Make the immune system more efficient at killing cancer cells or stop cancer growth
There are two branches of the immune system, the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system.
1- The innate immune system (Non-specific immune system) provides a general defence against common pathogens.
2- The adaptive immune system targets specific threats and launches precise responses against viruses or bacteria with which the body has already come into contact.
The various components of the immune system work together to provide both types of protection.
THE CELLS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
A number of different cells work together within the immune system to fight infections and disease.
a- B cells release antibodies to defend against harmful, invading cells. Each B cell is programmed to make one specific type of antibody-for instance, one B cell might be responsible for making antibodies that defend against the common cold virus. Tumor-reactive antibodies can bind to cancer cells, disrupting their activity as well as stimulating immune responses against them.
b- CD4+ helper T cells send signals to other immune cells (such as the CD8+ killer T cells) to direct their response and make sure they destroy harmful cells as quickly as possible.
c- CD8+ killer T cells destroy thousands of virus-infected cells in the body every day. These cells can also directly target and destroy cancer cells.
d- Dendritic cells digest cancerous cells and present their proteins on their surfaces, where other immune cells can better recognize and then destroy the harmful cells.
e- Macrophages engulf and destroy bacteria and other harmful cells. Like dendritic cells, they present antigens to other cells of the immune system for identification and destruction.
f- Regulatory T cells provide checks and balances to make sure that the immune system does not overreact.
g- Antibodies are proteins that bind to specific markers known as antigens on harmful invaders, such as germs, viruses, or tumor cells. Antibodies also mark these harmful cells for attack and destruction, which is carried out by other immune system cells.
h- Cytokines help immune cells work together to coordinate correct immune response to any invader, infection, or tumor.
THE TISSUES AND ORGANS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
Immune system work beyond the cellular and molecular levels. The intricate system of tissues and organs collaborate to protect the body from harmful cells and fight against disease, including cancer.
These tissues and organs, provide the broader framework in which the individual components of the immune system develop and operate.
a- The appendix
b- The bone marrow,
c- lymph nodes,
d- The skin,
e- The spleen, and
f- The thymus gland
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IN IMMUNOTHERAPY
Each element and process within the immune system is important to the body's overall ability to protect against disease and harmful pathogens.
The powerful coordination and communication of the immune system is such that it can be strengthened to fight off many types of cancer through treatments like immunotherapy.
Subodh A Pradhan
Author has been advocating
Importance of Immunity, for a decade